I like hiking in Lapland, for extended periods (6 weeks), alone
in the wilderness. The amount of stuff I can carry with me is quite limited,
and I have reduced it to a practical minimum. Here is a list of the kind of
stuff I carry with me in my backpack on a summer hike. I've never weighed
my backpack (I don't really want to know), but it's just heavy enough at
the beginning of the hike.
This list is not meant to be complete, and it must be adjusted according to where and when you are hiking, and under what conditions.
I do not carry a GPS-unit. A GPS would only tell me where I am.
I need to know where to go, and a compass will
point me there. Once I get there, then I'll know where I am.
(Besides, a good lot of help the GPS is once its batteries die.)
Pro tip: Copy or print your maps onto separate A4-size paper sheets. Store them in your backpack, and keep just two immediately relevant sheets handy. Place them back-to-back and seal them in a 2-liter Minigrip/Ziploc bag to protect them from the rain. The white label areas on the bags can be cleared up by wiping with acetone! I re-use my maps by writing a journal on the blank back side. Otherwise they could just as well be two-sided prints. I print my maps from pikakartta.fi. Yes, you can also get 1:50 000 maps from there.
An axe would sometimes be useful, but I've deemed it unnecessarily heavy. I've always managed to make a campfire even without an axe. Branches can be pulled off fallen dead trees, stumps are easy to kick and pull out of the ground, and dead birch breaks apart in your hands.
The Mylar "space blanket" is a generously sized, aluminized sheet of incredibly thin and tough plastic material. These are generally sold to protect against hypothermia. I have never used one for that purpose, and probably never will (I hope). I carry one because it weighs absolutely nothing, and (at least while it's unused) it is completely waterproof. So it will fix a broken tent or a leaking lean-to, and maybe if I encounter a river too deep to wade across, I'll wrap my backpack in it, and float it while swimming across the river.
The cell phone remains switched off most of the time, as there's no way to charge it out there. (Nor could I charge a GPS when its batteries wore out.) I just check text messages once or twice a week. I used to lug a Canon EOS 5D or an EOS 3 with an L-series lens, but have since come to my senses and bought a used Canon PowerShot A720 IS specifically for hiking. One of these days I might bring an amateur radio transceiver with me.
For two people, replace the one-person tent with a Hilleberg Nallo 3GT (luxuriously roomy accommodation for two!) and take along a standard Trangia 25 camp stove (with gas burner) and two plastic plates. Even with the Trangia stove, the pakki is most useful for cooking over a fire (e.g. when making evening tea), so I take that along as well. For the Trangia, I find that a 450 g (net) gas cylinder is just enough fuel for a week, provided you don't boil a full pot of water to make tea with every meal. If you never make tea on the Trangia, a single cylinder will last much longer. Gas is very convenient for cooking, but combining leftover gas into a single cylinder is a bit more tedious than pouring spirit from one bottle to another.
Carrying all the food for six weeks would be tough, but four weeks is just possible. Having a store somewhere halfway through the hike makes things a lot easier. Many stores carry quite reasonable pancake batter mix as well. Of course, if you can rely on catching enough fish, you can cut down on the food you must carry. In the autumn, the forest is also full of berries and mushrooms—but I really don't like the latter. And you can't replace pancakes.
Here's the pancake mix, enough for a sturdy evening meal plus breakfast the following morning (for one hungry hiker):